The Endometrium, lining of the uterus, thickens during an ovulatory cycle and if a pregnancy is established, provides crucial support and nourishment to a developing embryo. Underdeveloped or hormonally out of phase uterine linings can lead to implantation failure or early miscarriage. Low grade infection of the endometrium, chronic endometritis, can also cause early miscarriage.
Historically, endometrial biopsies or sampling of the endometrium were done frequently in attempt to determine if the endometrium was “out of phase”. Inaccurate results, and a painful, expensive procedure let to infrequent use of the test. Currently, blood testing for Progesterone and evaluating the length of the luteal phase enable us to more accurately diagnose potential out of phase endometrium.
Today, we use endometrial biopsies for new types of testing that have developed recently. Patients can take medication to ensure a more comfortable sampling procedure for these important tests.
ERA TEST: We are able to sample the endometrium after a course of medication to determine the optimal timing for future embryo transfers.
E-Tegrity Test: The endometrium can be tested for the presence of substances that are thought to be important for embryo implantation.
Endometrial Pathology: The endometrium can be sampled to check for endometrial hyperplasia, a precursor to endometrial cancer. Endometrial hyperplasia is more commonly seen in patients with PCOS .
Chronic Endometritis: An endometrial biopsy can be used to diagnose Chronic Endometritis, a low-grade infection of the uterine lining which can lead to miscarriage. Patients who test positive can be treated with a simple course of antibiotics.