The uterus must be normally shaped and free of congenital defects and obstructions for pregnancy to result.
The uterus must be free of large obstructions, such as endometrial polyps and fibroids (leiomyomas), for successful implantation and pregnancy. These conditions are often observed on the hysterosalpingogram (HSG), during hysteroscopy or at the time of 3D saline sonogram. (These tests are discussed in the “Fertility Tests” section of the Web site). Sometimes obstructions can be removed laparoscopically or by using the hysteroscope during outpatient surgery.
The uterus must also be normally shaped (triangular) and free of congenital defects such as the double uterus (uterus didelphys) which has two “horns”, unicornuate uterus (half of the normal uterus), uterine septum (muscle growth from the top of the inside of the uterus that protrudes into the cavity) and a bicornuate uterus (heart-shaped). Luckily, most of these defects such as a uterine septum can be corrected by one of our skilled reproductive surgeons at Reproductive Care Center.
Causes of Uterine Defects
The lining of uterus is known as the endometrium and consists of cells that can rapidly divide and develop under the influence of estrogen and progesterone. This development is necessary to provide an environment for optimal embryonic/fetal development. Unfortunately, some of these endometrial cells may enter the bloodstream during menses resulting in endometriosis. Sometimes the entire endometrium (lining) is not sloughed off during menses and the retained tissues forms an endometrial polyp. Large endometrial polyps can act almost like an IUD and should usually be surgically removed prior to further attempts at pregnancy